- In 1997 Kalil Elwihesi applied for to IANA for responsibility of .ly (the ISO code for libya). He registered it with a libyan address even though he lived in the UK and for several years sold the domain name and kept the profits. The IANA assumed this was going to the Libyan government
When SFR Yugoslavia dissolved during the Yugoslav wars beginning in 1991, the republic broke up into several smaller countries. Slovenia and Croatia quickly registered their own TLDs (.si and .hr, respectively, registered in 1993) but through a weird game of governance hot-potato the new Slovenian government now controlled the .yu TLD. and IANA facilitated the transfer fo the TLD from Slovenian hands to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia via an association at the University of Belgrade.
In 2003, the FR Yugoslavia became Serbia and Montenegro, and the .cs ccTLD was registered for the newly named country. However, it didn’t really end up going into use. .yu ended up lingering for a while, basically being the only ccTLD that wasn’t based on an ISO code. In a way, it kind of didn’t make a huge difference since the Serbia and Montenegro split apart in 2006, which led to the creation of the .rs and .me TLDs. In 2007, ICANN handed control of .yu to the Serbian National Register of Internet Domain Names, with the intent of slowly phasing the TLD out and letting the domain expire, which it ultimately did in 2010.
In July, the Free Syrian Army was formed by defecting officers from the Syrian Armed Forces, and a state of civil war has existed in the country ever since. Hundreds of thousands of Syrians have been killed or imprisoned on both sides, while almost three million have fled across the borders, one of the largest forced migrations since World War Two. 80,000 people are currently housed in the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan alone.
Alongside the humanitarian crisis, one of the ways in which the conflict has been visible to the outside world is through its effect on the internet both inside and outside the country. In 2012, as the rebel groups were making some of their largest early advances against the government, Syria disappeared from the internet almost entirely. On the 29th of November, almost all networks within Syria became inaccessible from the outside world - and what reports did leak out suggested that mobile and landline links inside the country were down as well.